Jupiter General Jupiter Data

  • Equatorial diameter: 142,984 km

  • Surface: 6,14×10 10 km 2

  • Mass: 1.899×10 27 kg

  • Distance from the Sun: 778,330,000 km

  • Natural satellites: it is estimated to have between 60 and 70 known satellites. Four have been nicknamed Galilean Moons since they were discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei.Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa are their names. The first is slightly larger than Mercury, and the other three are similar to our Moon.

  • Rotation period: approximately 10 hours

  • Translation period: approximately 12 years

  • Average temperature: -121.1 ° C

  • Atmospheric composition: Jupiter’s atmosphere is basically composed of two gases : 86% hydrogen and 14% helium.There is, in a very small way, the presence of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen sulfide.

Debido a su tamaño, se pueden encontrar muchos satélites alrededor de Júpiter.Because of its size, many satellites can be found around Jupiter.

Significance of Jupiter

Almost all planets in the Solar System are named after gods in Roman mythology, which is very similar to Greek mythology. For the Romans, the god Jupiter would be the god of the gods, as Zeus is for the Greeks, and the son of Saturn, which would be Kronos in Greece.

Jupiter received his name because he is the largest of the planets and the one who, in a way, reigns over the others.


Jupiter’s features are colossal and impressive, just like the planet itself. Among the visible features, we can highlight the colorful clouds that hover over the surface.Such coloring is the result of the atmospheric composition (hydrogen and helium) and the intense storms that occur, with winds of up to 600 km/hour. The most famous cloud has been christened the Red Spot, so large that it is capable of covering the entire Earth.

These storms are common on Jupiter because it is a gaseous planet and has an atmosphere with a high hydrogen content. Studies show that some storms last for hours, others can last for centuries, being fatal to humans.

Los colores de Júpiter pueden ser signos de grandes tormentas.The colors of this planet can be signs of major storms.

Jupiter’ s magnetic field is much stronger than Earth’s. This fact may help us understand the large number of natural satellites in its orbit.

The internal structure of the planet is still unknown. Studies point to a solid and rocky core, or even ice, which would explain the immense gravitational force of this planet.Surrounding the core is the mantle, which has dense metallic hydrogen. Studies based on probes lead us to believe that the temperature at the boundary between the core and the mantle is 35,000 ºC.

Going to the surface, we have a mixture of liquid and gaseous hydrogen, which extends from the clouds (which can be seen) to approximately 1000 kilometers deep.

See also: 8 facts about the Solar System

Its famous rings

Jupiter also has rings. They are not like those of Saturn, which is the great exponent of this planetary feature, but they were observed by the probes that visited the giant of the Solar System.

Discovered by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1979, Jupiter’s rings are composed of cosmic dust that orbits around the planet. Due to its magnitude, this dust around the planet becomes fragile and thin, not being visible at great distances.They are dark rings with small rocky particles. In comparison, Saturn’s rings are made of ice, so they radiate light and can be seen from far away.

Scientists point out that Jupiter’s rings are formed by meteor collisions on the planet’s natural satellites, especially on the Galilean moons.When there are collisions, fragments of satellites are ejected and attracted by the enormous gravitational force of Jupiter, entering its orbit.

facts about jupiter

Let’s see some curiosities about the largest planet in the Solar System.

  • If we lived on Jupiter, we would have a birthday every 12 years, the time of the planet’s translation.

  • The day on Jupiter lasts 10 hours.

  • Europa, one of the Galilean moons, may have a liquid ocean on its surface.

  • Winds of 600 km/hour are common on Jupiter.

  • Jupiter’s mass is 2.5 times that of the other seven Solar System planets combined. A giant.

  • If Jupiter’s interior were hollow, 1300 Earths would fit inside it.

  • It is a gas planet, like Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

  • Jupiter has the fastest rotation speed among the planets of the Solar System.

  • The gravitational force on Jupiter is 22.9 m/s², while on Earth this force is 9.8 m/s².

  • Since the 1970s, seven probes have visited Jupiter:

– Pioneer 10 (1973)

– Pioneer 11 (1974)

– Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (1979)

– Galileo (1995)

– New Horizons and Cassini (2000s)

By Átila Matias
Professor of Geography

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